Responsibility

Zeolite ineffective as pond treatment

...than the total capacity of the mineral to absorb cations. Boyd, Table 1 SalinityAmmonia Removal (g/kg zeolite) 0.1 ppt (tap water)9.0 4 ppt0.12 8 ppt0.10 16 ppt0.08 32 ppt0.04  ... 

Responsibility

Farm effluent during draining for harvest

...exchange. Boyd, Amount of effluent from different water exchange rates, Table 1 Average Daily Water Exchange (% Pond Volume)Exchange Effluent Volume (m3/ha per Crop) 224,000 560,000 10120,000 15180,000 Table 1.... 

Responsibility

Water use in aquaculture

...more efficiently than other terrestrial, irrigated agriculture, even in arid climates. Boyd, water use, Table 1 ClimateInflow (mm/yr) Wet900 Table 1. Inflow necessary to maintain water levels in levee ponds... 

Responsibility

Formulating standards for effluent management

...regarding permissible concentrations of selected water quality variables. Examples of concentration- based criteria in a water quality standard are noted in Table 1 below. Boyd, Concentration-based criteria in a water... 

Responsibility

Water quality standards: Total Ammonia Nitrogen

...ponds at harvest (Table 1). Boyd, Typical inputs and outputs of nitrogen, Table 1 InputsInputsOutputsOutputs Feed and fertilizer90%Shrimp harvest25% Water supply and nitrogen fixation10%Denitrification12% Ammonia volatilization18% Sediment accumulation10% Effluent35% Table... 

Responsibility

Water quality standards: Total phosphorus

...form. Boyd, Typical inputs and outputs of phosphorus, Table 1 Phosphorus InputsPhosphorus Outputs Feed 90%Shrimp 25% Inflowing Water 10%Soil Uptake 65% Effluent 10% Table 1: Typical inputs and outputs of... 

Responsibility

Nitrification an important process in aquaculture

...acidity can be a serious problem in water with total alkalinity concentrations below 20 mg per liter. Periodic liming is necessary to avoid low alkalinity in some fertilized ponds. Boyd,... 

Responsibility

Land and water use issues in aquaculture

...equal total water use. Aquaculture production units can be classified according to their requirements for land and water as shown in Table 1. Boyd, Water use in aquaculture production systems,... 

Responsibility

Specific conductance: An alternative salinity measurement

...specific conductance is illustrated in Table 1. Boyd, Concentration versus specific conductance, Table 1 Potassium Chloride Normality Potassium Chloride mg/lSpecific Conductance (µmhos/cm) 0.00.00.0 0.00017.514.9 0.000537.373.9 0.00174.6147 0.005373718 0.017461,413 0.053,7286,668 0.17,45512,900... 

Responsibility

Organic matter in pond bottom sediment

...shows the classification of bottom soil organic matter concentrations for samples taken at this time. Boyd, Classification of bottom soil, Table 1 Organic Carbon (%)Comment > 15 purposesOrganic soil, not...