Calcium and magnesium use in aquaculture

Claude E. Boyd, Ph.D.

Hatcheries, farms should monitor levels of essential nutrients Aquatic animals can get the essential nutrients calcium and magnesium from both culture water and their food. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium are seldom measured in waters for aquaculture, but total hardness is determined rather often. Hardness is the concentration of divalent cations — mostly calcium and…

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  • Claude E. Boyd, Ph.D.

    Claude E. Boyd, Ph.D.

    School of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences Auburn University
    Auburn, AL 36830 USA

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