Consumer interest in water quality may prompt industry to further limit chemical use and improve biosecurity programs as an alternative to antibiotics.
Construction of an intensive aquaculture production facility without serious attention to biosecurity nearly guarantees outbreaks of infectious disease.
Natural waters uninfluenced by high biological activity seldom have pH above 8.5, but in fish or shrimp culture, pond pH levels can rise to 9 or higher.
Low-salinity shrimp culture is an important activity in Thailand. Ponds contain water of 2 to 5 ppt salinity, mixing brine solution from coastal seawater with freshwater.
Panama shrimp farmers looking to boost production in the presence of White Spot Syndrome Virus have tried various strategies, including freshwater systems.
Norwegian smolt farms are located along the coast, on land, and a growing number practice partial or “tank-internal” recirculation of water.
Future increases in U.S. shrimp farming are likely to be inland, which entails the use of ground waters with an ion concentration vastly different from seawater.
With decreasing prices and increasing raw-material costs, efforts to reduce shrimp feed costs and improve management top the agenda for most farmers.
Pelleting mills, where finely ground and conditioned meal are mechanically pressed through a die, produce cost-effective, high-density, water-stable shrimp feeds.
Denitrification by anaerobic bacteria can remove nitrates from RAS, but the operation requires anaerobic conditions and the addition of carbon sources.