Most environmental concerns about aquaculture practices can be addressed effectively by zero exchange, aerobic, heterotrophic culture systems.
Drum filters have been shown to be efficient in tests, although the effect of using different mesh sizes has not been clearly determined.
Shrimp viruses have been the etiological agents most responsible for devastating losses, and no country with a significant shrimp farming industry has escaped.
Bead filters compete very well as bioclarifiers and are used in combination with fluidized beds to tackle solids capture and biofiltration needs.
In Germany, known for its pond culture of carp and trout, closed recirculation systems are getting commercial fish farmers' attention.
Shrimp farmers in Asia and the Americas have used chemical and biological agents to control White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) disease.
Solar Aquafarms developed an innovative, low-cost method for growing fish and shrimp in closed-cycle, controlled environments in California.
For oligotrophic (low nutrient levels) systems, where extremely high water quality must be attained, biofilters must be considered.
Researchers conducted the first experimental nursery and grow-out trials of southern flounder in a raceway using a freshwater recirculating system.
Availability of quality fresh and saline water in Norway has contributed to the fact that recirculation technologies are considered uneconomical.