An important criterion when studying biofilters is the conversion rate of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) to nitrate-nitrogen in production water. Although nitrification rates have been based on media surface areas, they do not always reflect the actual nitrification achieved. Volumetric
Grow-out studies of summer flounder at the University of North Carolina Wilmington evaluated microbead media as a biofilter in recirculating systems.
The use of integrated mariculture systems incorporating seaweed biofilters addresses the impact of discharges, promoting more sustainable production.
Heterotrophic and autotrophic bacterial communities supported within a biofilter naturally process organic wastes and provide biologically stable water.