Published information on the effects of including organic acids and their salts at low concentrations in aquafeeds varies according to fish species and age, as well as the types and levels of organic acids and salts used.
Dietary lipids are important sources of energy and the essential fatty acids needed by fish for growth and development.
A study of Nile tilapia provided feed with varying dietary lipid sources found that fish fed a diet with beef tallow exhibited poorer survival and growth performance than fish fed diets with plant oils, fish oil, or combinations of oils
Witholding feed from channel catfish during the manifestation of enteric septicemia is a common practice, but discontinued feeding after an ESC challenge increased mortality.
The amount of cottonseed meal that can be included in fish diets depends mainly on its levels of free gossypol and available lysine.
Dietary gossypol from cotton seeds, if present in large amounts in a diet, causes unfavorable physiological effects in monogastric animals including fish.