Epidemiological studies have estimated that noroviruses are responsible for 60 percent to 80 percent of all foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Consumption of shellfish is one of three main transmission routes of norovirus infection.
Since bivalve shellfish filter large volumes of water to feed, they can accumulate and concentrate bacteria and viruses from various pollution sources. Among enteric viruses, noroviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans who consume affected shellfish. Current wastewater