Prof. Boyd discusses eutrophication of water bodies, effluents and nutrients from aquaculture facilities, and aquaculture certification along with the difficulties to develop maximum acceptable concentration limits and load limits for nitrogen and phosphorus discharge.
According to the World Health Organization, 2 billion people are affected by mineral and vitamin deficiencies. Aquaculture producers should review the mineral content of culture waters and in fish diets and whether they can manipulate these two key variables.
Culture cages should be installed in areas with good water circulation and not placed in embayments with narrow openings or very shallow water.
Both aquaculture effluents and production costs can be reduced by using stock-specific feeds applied in smaller quantities several times a day.