Epidemiological studies have estimated that noroviruses are responsible for 60 percent to 80 percent of all foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Consumption of shellfish is one of three main transmission routes of norovirus infection.
George J. Flick
Since bivalve shellfish filter large volumes of water to feed, they can accumulate and concentrate bacteria and viruses from various pollution sources. Among enteric viruses, noroviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans who consume affected shellfish. Current wastewater
Commercially harvested shellfish have been reported to cause gastro-enteritis when humans consume virus-contaminated products. Rotaviruses are one of the main types of viruses able to survive and persist in the aquatic environment.
Live markets represent a promising niche in regions where locally raised seafood cannot compete with inexpensive imports. Study results suggested regional shrimp producers could effectively reach premium markets by shipping using waterless methods.
The development of antimicrobial resistance genes in human pathogens as a consequence of exposure to antibiotics in aquaculture is widely documented. Reports implicate foodborne antibacterial-resistant pathogenic bacteria in human disease.
No antimicrobial agent has been developed specifically for aquaculture applications. However, some antibiotic products used to treat humans or land-based animals have been approved for use at aquaculture facilities.
Cathepsin D alone and in combination with other cathepsins presents the greatest proteolytic activity on some fish muscles.
Cathepsins B, D and L are considered critical in fish muscle post-mortem modifications or gel softening during the setting of surimi.
Iron compounds in fish contribute significantly to lipid oxidation in addition to oxidation mediated by enzymatic activity. The main iron-containing compounds are myoglobin and hemoglobin.