For most effective use, water should have low turbidity and high U.V. transmittance, with ultraviolet dosage tuned to the target organisms. Low-pressure/high-output amalgam U.V. lamps are often used in RAS systems.
Various techniques have been proposed to reduce Vibrio bacteria in live and processed oysters. In studies, X-ray treatments successfully reduced Vibrio populations.
Irradiation, or ionizing radiation treatments, can extend the shelf life of seafood products by reducing pathogenic microorganisms and spoilage.
In 1997, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved irradiation for meat, which can kill or inactivate 99.9 percent of Salmonella and E coli.