Total alkalinity is an important variable in water for aquaculture systems, and its concentration frequently fluctuates over time in many culture systems.
Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the earth’s crust, but occurs at very low concentrations in surface waters and oceans. It is an essential element for many organisms as part of many enzymes, and also has an important
The authors believe that dry-out periods likely destroy most organisms in pond bottoms, and liming of the entire bottom area should be done only to neutralize soil acidity and increase pH for organic matter decomposition by soil microorganisms.
The main pond bottom soil management practices used in semi-intensive culture are pond dry-out and liming between crops. These practices accelerate organic matter decomposition, neutralize soil acidity and destroy unwanted organisms.
The traditional way of destroying organisms in pond bottoms is thorough dry-out for a week or longer. Fish toxicants and liming can kill unwanted parasites.
Proper site selection, consideration of soil properties and careful earthwork construction at shrimp farms are essential. Prevention of erosion protects farm infrastructure and reduces sediment accumulation in ponds.
Liming materials neutralize acidity and increase pH in pond bottom soil and water. They also react with carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate and release calcium and magnesium, increasing both alkalinity and hardness concentrations in water.