Published information on the effects of including organic acids and their salts at low concentrations in aquafeeds varies according to fish species and age, as well as the types and levels of organic acids and salts used.
Phillip H. Klesius
Vaccines are a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current vaccinations for fish can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines.
Witholding feed from channel catfish during the manifestation of enteric septicemia is a common practice, but discontinued feeding after an ESC challenge increased mortality.
The amount of cottonseed meal that can be included in fish diets depends mainly on its levels of free gossypol and available lysine.