The traditional way of destroying organisms in pond bottoms is thorough dry-out for a week or longer. Fish toxicants and liming can kill unwanted parasites.
Proper site selection, consideration of soil properties and careful earthwork construction at shrimp farms are essential. Prevention of erosion protects farm infrastructure and reduces sediment accumulation in ponds.
Alkalinity and acidity in pond water and soil interact and can result in unhealthy culture conditions. Ion exchange occurs between soil and water until an equilibrium is reached.
Carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio is an important variable related to soil fertility. Intensive ponds have lower C:N ratios, while higher ratios are found in extensive ponds and those constructed in organic soil.
Limit pond soil analyses to soil particle size for use in pond construction decisions, initial analysis of total sulfur, occasional analyses of total nitrogen, and routine analyses of pH and soil organic carbon.
Iron supplementation of pond fertilizers can improve their effectiveness in promoting phytoplankton growth. Ferrous iron in bottom sediment precipitates hydrogen sulfide gas produced by microbial activity.