News features and technical articles about the evolution of aquaculture, one of the world’s fastest growing industries.

pond bottom

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Reactions between pond bottom soil, water

Alkalinity and acidity in pond water and soil interact and can result in unhealthy culture conditions. Ion exchange occurs between soil and water until an equilibrium is reached. 


Carbon-nitrogen ratio management

Carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio is an important variable related to soil fertility. Intensive ponds have lower C:N ratios, while higher ratios are found in extensive ponds and those constructed in organic soil. 


Pond bottom soil analyses

Limit pond soil analyses to soil particle size for use in pond construction decisions, initial analysis of total sulfur, occasional analyses of total nitrogen, and routine analyses of pH and soil organic carbon. 


Iron important to pond water, bottom quality

Iron supplementation of pond fertilizers can improve their effectiveness in promoting phytoplankton growth. Ferrous iron in bottom sediment precipitates hydrogen sulfide gas produced by microbial activity. 


Organic matter in pond bottom sediment

Organic matter – including fertilizers, unconsumed feed and feces of culture animals – settles to pond bottoms, often with a negative impact on water quality.