If an animal is stressed, its immune function decreases, and vulnerability to diseases increases. Since there is currently no effective treatment for disease in echinoderms, the authors examined the impacts of handling and salinity fluctuations on the immune functions of
Although researchers in several countries are working to enhance sea urchin fisheries or commercial production, the development of a major commercial industry has been restrained by the lack of cost-effective production technology.
Cost-effective seedstock supply is needed for commercial production of sea urchins. Metamorphosis from free-swimming planktonic larvae to benthic grazers has presented a significant challenge.