Canada exports farmed seafood products to more than 22 countries and is the main seafood supplier to the U.S. market. Finfish, primarily salmon, production is strong and shellfish production is growing, but diversification will be imperative to maintain competitiveness.
Since bivalve shellfish filter large volumes of water to feed, they can accumulate and concentrate bacteria and viruses from various pollution sources. Among enteric viruses, noroviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans who consume affected shellfish. Current wastewater
Commercially harvested shellfish have been reported to cause gastro-enteritis when humans consume virus-contaminated products. Rotaviruses are one of the main types of viruses able to survive and persist in the aquatic environment.
The rapid cooling of harvested quahog clams to achieve the product temperatures required by regulators and dealers can often result in mortalities due to thermal shock.
Off-flavors in pond and recirculating aquaculture systems have occurred through the biological production of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol. The compounds are rapidly absorbed through the gills of fish, but depuration can require days or weeks.
Turkey has many kilometers of coastline, but shellfish culture is developing slowly in the country. Only two bivalve farms producing mussels presently operate there. Mussel spat is collected naturally on the long line systems.
The main reason for recent declines in blue mussel yields in the Netherlands was lower availability of mussel seed. Mild winters have increased the number of predators, which can decimate mussel stocks.
Widely distributed in shellfish and the coastal waters they inhabit, Vibrio vulnificus bacteria account for 95 percent of all seafood-related deaths in the United States.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a widespread and serious foodborne pathogen commonly associated with shellfish-vectored outbreaks.