Aerators, especially paddlewheels, are often used to mix the water and address oxygen stratification in ponds. However, most aerators do not provide the most efficient and power-conscious service. Due to thermal and oxygen stratification in ponds, the efficiency of paddlewheel
With relatively low use of land and water, intensive aquaculture systems can support much higher production than extensive systems.
Measurements of nitrogen isotope uptake can enable more efficient study of feed utilization in whole aquaculture pond systems.
Biofloc systems enable more intensive tilapia production. The fish adapt to the conditions within biofloc systems and grow well by utilizing the bioflocs as a feed source.
In a study, microbial flocs contributed about 50 percent of feed material as dry solids and about 50 percent of the protein requirement of tilapia.
A benefit of aeration is the mixing of pond water. Similar to biotechnological reactors, microbial processes are more effective in mixed pond water.
Aerated microbial reuse systems utilize intense aeration and mixing to produce yields of 10 to 30 metric tons per hectare per cycle with little or no water exchange.
An alternative waste treatment is intense microbial processing of wastes to facilitate high yields with little or no water exchange.
Aerated microbial reuse systems recycle nutrients in the form of organic detritus, which consists of aggregates of organic particles coated with a film of bacteria.